While Timor-Leste’s national income has grown rapidly, petroleum revenues are now declining and poverty levels remain the highest in the Asia Pacific region. Successive governments have invested heavily in social transfers and public infrastructure to reach out to disaffected constituencies (including ‘petitioners’ and veterans) and the disadvantaged (including single mothers and the elderly.) Yet questions remain about the sustainability of these schemes, as well as the extent to which they are reaching those most in need. What is the scope of these schemes and what is their impact? What challenges are faced in reaching disadvantaged groups? More broadly, what are the implications of current economic policies and strategies for questions of wealth distribution, inclusive growth, inequality and poverty? To what extent does the appointment of the new prime minister signal any change in approach?