By global standards, Melanesia has some of the fastest-growing cities. Pressures on land, resources and services are mounting. Well-managed urban development can be a driver of national development, but if neglected it can cause instability and inequality. Regionally specific understanding of changing demographics, rising pressures on scarce resources, and issues of food, water and energy security is critical for Pacific Island national security and resilience. Conflicts in the Pacific have nearly all been linked to land and resource access. Because of their high reliance on resources for subsistence and economic development, applied research in this area is critical to the future prosperity of the Pacific Islands.