This book presents an analysis of legal, administrative and political issues arising from the complex arrangements for the conduct of the Bougainville referendum. In doing so, the book responds to a gap in the growing literature on Bougainville. While much has been written on the origins and development of the Bougainville conflict (1988–19971), as well as the peace process (1997–2005) and the implementation of the BPA, as of early 2019 little of substance has been written about the referendum. With the exception of the reports being produced by a referendum research project conducted by the PNG National Research Institute (NRI) (see chapter two), much of what has been written deals mainly with the politics of reaching agreement on inclusion of the referendum in the BPA and the likely complex politics of implementing the referendum arrangements. However, even the reports being produced by the NRI project do not deal with the complex arrangements for the referendum in Bougainville. For example, the report on referendum administration focuses on experiences elsewhere in the world and does not specifically analyse the arrangements for administration of the Bougainville referendum.